Research Program

Here is a list of research activities that we are doing/planning at the SEE group.

For TU Delft students, if you are interested in any of the below topics and would like to join the group for thesis/project, please email me ( at

Research topics on MXene electrochemistry for high-rate energy storage applications:

-Mechanistic study of MXene-based high-rate electrochemical energy storage processes

-Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on the electrochemical charging processes of MXenes

-X-ray and neutron studies on the interfacial properties of MXenes

-The synthesis of novel 2D MXenes using both the molten salt and solution-based methods

-Interfacial engineering at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces

Related publications

ACS Energy Letter, 2022, 7, 30-35.; ACS Nano, 2021, 15, 9, 15274–15284.; Nature Reviews Materials, 2020, 5: 787–808.; Nature Energy, 2019, 4: 241–248.

If you would like to learn more about MXenes and electrochemistry, welcome to visit our YouTube Channel (EChem Channel).

2D transition metal carbide MXenes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage application

Schematic illustration of the structure of a MXene with three metallic layers and terminated by oxygen surface groups, or M3C2O2. (MRS Bulletin, 2021, 46, 755–766.)

Research keywords: 2D MXenes, Supercapacitor, Electrode-electrolyte interface, Charge storage mechanism

Periodic table showing the elements of MXenes that have been synthesized experimentally. Color code in the periodic table: red (transition metal), yellow (X element), blue (surface groups), and green (A element in MAX phases). Schematics show the general structure of different types of MXenes. (Encyclopedia of Materials: Electronics, 2021, 00015.)

Two-dimensional (2D) materials are versatile choices for electrochemical energy storage applications. A wide variety of ions can be reversibly intercalated and de-intercalated in 2D layers, realizing charge storage and release. Due to their open layered structure and weak Van der Waals interaction between subsequent layers, 2D materials, allow high-rate energy storage with low-ion intercalation resistance. Among 2D materials, transition metal carbide/nitride MXenes are particularly promising electrode materials offering a high charge storage capacity with an ultrahigh rate capability due to their redox-active surface and metallic high electrical conductivity. Since the first discovery of MXene in 2011, there is an ever-growing interest in MXene-related research, such as novel 2D materials synthesis with new stoichiometry, structural and surface characterization and functionalization, and the development of energy storage electrodes.