Research Program

Here is a list of research activities that we are doing/planning at the SEE group.

For TU Delft students, if you are interested in any of the below topics and would like to join the group for thesis/project, please email me ( at

Research topics on MXene electrochemistry for high-rate energy storage applications:

-The synthesis of novel 2D MXenes using both the molten salt and solution-based methods

-Solid-state NMR study on the electrochemical charging processes of MXenes during cycling

-In-situ X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction study on the interfacial properties of MXenes

-Neutron reflectometry study on the surface chemistry of MXenes

-Mechanistic study of MXene-based high-rate electrochemical energy storage processes

-Interfacial engineering at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces

Related publications

ACS Energy Letter, 2022, 7, 30-35.; ACS Nano, 2021, 15, 9, 15274–15284.; Nature Reviews Materials, 2020, 5: 787–808.; Nature Energy, 2019, 4: 241–248.

If you would like to learn more about MXenes and electrochemistry, you can also visit our YouTube Channel (EChem Channel). Thanks.

2D transition metal carbide MXenes for high-rate electrochemical energy storage application

Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the structure of a MXene with three metallic layers and terminated by oxygen surface groups, or M3C2O2. (MRS Bulletin, 2021, 46, 755–766.)

Two-dimensional (2D) materials are versatile choices for electrochemical energy storage applications. A wide variety of ions can be reversibly intercalated and de-intercalated in 2D layers, realizing charge storage and release. Due to their open layered structure and weak Van der Waals interaction between subsequent layers, 2D materials, allow high-rate energy storage with low-ion intercalation resistance. Among 2D materials, transition metal carbide/nitride MXenes are particularly promising electrode materials offering a high charge storage capacity with an ultrahigh rate capability due to their redox-active surface and metallic high electrical conductivity (Figure 1&2). Since the first discovery of MXene in 2011, there is an ever-growing interest in MXene-related research, such as novel 2D materials synthesis with new stoichiometry, structural and surface characterization and functionalization, and the development of energy storage electrodes.

Figure 2. Periodic table showing the elements of MXenes that have been synthesized experimentally. Color code in the periodic table: red (transition metal), yellow (X element), blue (surface groups), and green (A element in MAX phases). Schematics show the general structure of different type of MXenes. (Encyclopedia of Materials: Electronics, 2021, 00015.)

Research keywords: 2D MXenes, Electrode-electrolyte interface, Charge storage mechanism